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故障解析丨一次死锁问题的解决

2024-03-18 10:00 https://my.oschina.net/GreatSQL/blog/11047827 GreatSQL 次阅读 条评论

背景

业务端遇到报错为"Deadlock found when trying to get lock; try restarting transaction"则表明有死锁发生

名称配置
数据库版本GreatSQL 8.0.26
隔离级别Read-Commited

innodb status 日志

greatsql> show engine innodb status\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Type: InnoDB
  Name: 
Status: 
=====================================
2024-01-28 16:55:38 140737023727360 INNODB MONITOR OUTPUT
=====================================
Per second averages calculated from the last 14 seconds
-----------------
BACKGROUND THREAD
-----------------
srv_master_thread loops: 41 srv_active, 0 srv_shutdown, 17830 srv_idle
srv_master_thread log flush and writes: 0
----------
SEMAPHORES
----------
-------------
RW-LATCH INFO
-------------
Total number of rw-locks 132361
OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: reservation count 11180
OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: signal count 11177
RW-shared spins 0, rounds 0, OS waits 0
RW-excl spins 0, rounds 0, OS waits 0
RW-sx spins 0, rounds 0, OS waits 0
Spin rounds per wait: 0.00 RW-shared, 0.00 RW-excl, 0.00 RW-sx
------------------------
LATEST DETECTED DEADLOCK
------------------------
2024-01-28 16:53:40 140735053358848
*** (1) TRANSACTION:
TRANSACTION 37616, ACTIVE 8 sec inserting
mysql tables in use 1, locked 1
LOCK WAIT 2 lock struct(s), heap size 1192, 1 row lock(s), undo log entries 1
MySQL thread id 16, OS thread handle 140737023432448, query id 652 127.0.0.1 root update
insert into info values (50,11)

*** (1) HOLDS THE LOCK(S):
RECORD LOCKS space id 26 page no 5 n bits 80 index uk_name of table `apple`.`info` trx id 37616 lock mode S waiting
Record lock, heap no 7 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 2; compact format; info bits 0
 0: len 4; hex 8000000b; asc     ;;
 1: len 4; hex 80000028; asc    (;;


*** (1) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED:
RECORD LOCKS space id 26 page no 5 n bits 80 index uk_name of table `apple`.`info` trx id 37616 lock mode S waiting
Record lock, heap no 7 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 2; compact format; info bits 0
 0: len 4; hex 8000000b; asc     ;;
 1: len 4; hex 80000028; asc    (;;


*** (2) TRANSACTION:
TRANSACTION 37615, ACTIVE 24 sec inserting
mysql tables in use 1, locked 1
LOCK WAIT 3 lock struct(s), heap size 1192, 2 row lock(s), undo log entries 2
MySQL thread id 15, OS thread handle 140737024022272, query id 653 127.0.0.1 root update
insert into info values (60,8)

*** (2) HOLDS THE LOCK(S):
RECORD LOCKS space id 26 page no 5 n bits 80 index uk_name of table `apple`.`info` trx id 37615 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap
Record lock, heap no 7 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 2; compact format; info bits 0
 0: len 4; hex 8000000b; asc     ;;
 1: len 4; hex 80000028; asc    (;;


*** (2) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED:
RECORD LOCKS space id 26 page no 5 n bits 80 index uk_name of table `apple`.`info` trx id 37615 lock_mode X locks gap before rec insert intention waiting
Record lock, heap no 7 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 2; compact format; info bits 0
 0: len 4; hex 8000000b; asc     ;;
 1: len 4; hex 80000028; asc    (;;

*** WE ROLL BACK TRANSACTION (1)
------------
TRANSACTIONS
------------

查看表结构

greatsql> show create table info \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: info
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `info` (
  `id` int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` int NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `uk_name` (`name`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=61 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

梳理 innodb status 日志

  • 整理如下:
事务T1T2
操作insert into info values (50,11)insert into info values (60,8)
关联的对象表apple.info的唯一索引 uk_name表apple.info的唯一索引 uk_name
持有的锁lock mode S waitingheap no 7 11,40(十六进制为8,28)lock_mode X locks rec but not gapheap no 7 11,40(十六进制为8,28)
等待的锁lock mode S waitingheap no 7 11,40(十六进制为8,28)lock_mode X locks gap before rec insert intention waitingheap no 7 11,40(十六进制为8,28)
  • 首先事务T2获取到了uk_name中记录11的 lock x,rec not not gap 锁

  • 事务T1尝试获取uk_name中记录11的lock s, next key lock,由于T2持有了记录的独占锁,因此被T1堵塞

  • 事务T2尝试获取uk_name中记录11的lock x, gap before rec,insert intention,但被堵塞

获取业务历史SQL语句

通过系统表方式

通过performance_schema.threads、performance_schema.events_statements_history、performance_schema.events_statements_history_long等系统表获取历史SQL

  • 根据GreatSQL thread id获得线程id
greatsql> select PROCESSLIST_ID,THREAD_ID,THREAD_OS_ID from  performance_schema.threads where processlist_id in (15,16);
+----------------+-----------+--------------+
| PROCESSLIST_ID | THREAD_ID | THREAD_OS_ID |
+----------------+-----------+--------------+
|             15 |        61 |         5714 |
|             16 |        62 |         5719 |
+----------------+-----------+--------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • 根据线程id获得线程历史SQL
greatsql> select THREAD_ID,EVENT_ID,CURRENT_SCHEMA,SQL_TEXT,MESSAGE_TEXT,EVENT_NAME,SOURCE from performance_schema.events_statements_history where thread_id in (61,62) order by THREAD_ID,EVENT_ID;
+-----------+----------+----------------+---------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
| THREAD_ID | EVENT_ID | CURRENT_SCHEMA | SQL_TEXT                        | MESSAGE_TEXT                                                       | EVENT_NAME               | SOURCE                          |
+-----------+----------+----------------+---------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
|        61 |     3762 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     3807 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     3852 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     3897 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     3942 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     3987 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     4032 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     4077 | apple          | begin                           | NULL                                                               | statement/sql/begin      | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     4100 | apple          | insert into info values (40,11) | NULL                                                               | statement/sql/insert     | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        61 |     4569 | apple          | insert into info values (60,8)  | NULL                                                               | statement/sql/insert     | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3215 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3260 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3305 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3350 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3395 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3440 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3485 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3530 | apple          | NULL                            | NULL                                                               | statement/com/Field List | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3575 | apple          | begin                           | NULL                                                               | statement/sql/begin      | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
|        62 |     3598 | apple          | insert into info values (50,11) | Deadlock found when trying to get lock; try restarting transaction | statement/sql/insert     | init_net_server_extension.cc:94 |
+-----------+----------+----------------+---------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
20 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • 观察show engine innodb status中的GreatSQL thread id 16和GreatSQL thread id 15

  • 通过performance_schema.threads获取THREAD_ID

  • 通过performance_schema.events_statements_history获取THREAD_ID执行的历史SQL以及执行时间

最终可复现出如下业务SQL:

事务T1T2
语句begin;begin;
语句insert into info values (40,11);
语句insert into info values (50,11);
语句insert into info values (60,8);

通过解析binlog

$ mysqlbinlog -vv --base64-output=decode-rows bin.000030

SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'e319a624-b2ce-11ee-9aac-00163e62ca8a:8696'/*!*/;
# at 10314
#240128 16:52:35 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10390 CRC32 0x59edb313         Query        thread_id=18        exec_time=0        error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1706431955/*!*/;
BEGIN
/*!*/;
# at 10390
#240128 16:52:35 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10442 CRC32 0xc03dea61         Table_map: `apple`.`info` mapped to number 370
# at 10442
#240128 16:52:35 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10486 CRC32 0x670e0c66         Write_rows: table id 370 flags: STMT_END_F
### INSERT INTO `apple`.`info`
### SET
###   @1=30 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=30 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
# at 10486
#240128 16:52:35 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10517 CRC32 0xab4e0d89         Xid = 598
COMMIT/*!*/;
# at 10517
#240128 19:22:12 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10596 CRC32 0x4f4cf08e         GTID        last_committed=30        sequence_number=36        rbr_only=yes        original_committed_timestamp=1706440932450590        immediate_commit_timestamp=1706440932450590 transaction_length=378
/*!50718 SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ COMMITTED*//*!*/;
# original_commit_timestamp=1706440932450590 (2024-01-28 19:22:12.450590 CST)
# immediate_commit_timestamp=1706440932450590 (2024-01-28 19:22:12.450590 CST)
/*!80001 SET @@session.original_commit_timestamp=1706440932450590*//*!*/;
/*!80014 SET @@session.original_server_version=80026*//*!*/;
/*!80014 SET @@session.immediate_server_version=80026*//*!*/;
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'e319a624-b2ce-11ee-9aac-00163e62ca8a:8697'/*!*/;
# at 10596
#240128 16:53:16 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10672 CRC32 0xf222c003         Query        thread_id=15        exec_time=0        error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1706431996/*!*/;
BEGIN
/*!*/;
# at 10672
#240128 16:53:16 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10724 CRC32 0x20cb8c86         Table_map: `apple`.`info` mapped to number 370
# at 10724
#240128 16:53:16 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10768 CRC32 0xd8f53958         Write_rows: table id 370 flags: STMT_END_F
### INSERT INTO `apple`.`info`
### SET
###   @1=40 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=11 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
# at 10768
#240128 16:53:40 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10820 CRC32 0x23f22580         Table_map: `apple`.`info` mapped to number 370
# at 10820
#240128 16:53:40 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10864 CRC32 0x182ecdef         Write_rows: table id 370 flags: STMT_END_F
### INSERT INTO `apple`.`info`
### SET
###   @1=60 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2=8 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
# at 10864
#240128 19:22:12 server id 1024  end_log_pos 10895 CRC32 0x57fd1d3c         Xid = 650
COMMIT/*!*/;
SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'AUTOMATIC' /* added by mysqlbinlog */ /*!*/;
DELIMITER ;
# End of log file
/*!50003 SET COMPLETION_TYPE=@OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE*/;
/*!50530 SET @@SESSION.PSEUDO_SLAVE_MODE=0*/;

根据binlog中部分SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'e319a624-b2ce-11ee-9aac-00163e62ca8a:8697'该GTID的事务信息,可恢复T2,但T1执行的语句由于被回滚了,则不会记录到binlog,可开启general log日志获取排查

事务T1T2
语句begin;begin;
语句insert into info values (40,11);
语句insert into info values (50,11);
语句insert into info values (60,8);

分析死锁

  • T1、T2开启了一个事务

  • 随后T2执行了插入(40,11)的insert语句:insert into info values (40,11)

  • T1执行了插入(50,11)的insert语句:insert into info values (50,11) 进行唯一性冲突检查,尝试获取LOCK_S

  • 然后T1所在的连接会将T2中的隐式锁转换为显示锁,此时T2将获取Lock X, Rec_not_gap。由于T2的Lock X, Rec_not_gap与T1的LOCK S不兼容,因此T1被堵塞

  • 随后,T2又执行了(60,8)的insert语句:insert into info values (60,8) 由于其插入的唯一索引值是8,因此不存在主键冲突,直接执行乐观插入操作。执行乐观插入时,需要检查其它事务是否堵塞insert操作。其核心是获取待插入记录的下一个值(这里刚好是10),并获取该记录上的所有锁,与需要添加的锁判断是否存在冲突。

  • T1持有了记录11的LOCK_S锁与T2的LOCK_X、LOCK_INSERT_INTENTION不兼容,因此T2被T1堵塞

  • 死锁形成。

解决

• 适当的减少Unique索引

• 避免插入重复的值(唯一索引所在列)

Enjoy GreatSQL :)

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